In rats, bacosides A enhance antioxidant defenses, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Laboratory studies on rats indicate that extracts of the plant improve memory capacity. Recent studies suggest bacopa significantly improves cognitive ability including an accelerated rate of learning and enhanced memory. These effects are optimized after a 12 week period. The sulfhydryl and polyphenol components of Bacopa monnieri extract have also been shown to impact the oxidative stress cascade by scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and reducing divalent metals. This mechanism of action may explain the effect of Bacopa monniera extract in reducing beta amyloid deposits in mice with Alzheimer’s disease. B. monnieri has a demonstrated ability to reverse diazepam-induced amnesia in theMorris water maze test. The mechanism of this action is unknown. In some trials, bacopacide extract did not restore or enhance memory formation, but improved retention. In others, including a randomized clinical trial of 98 healthy older people (over 55 years), Bacopa significantly improved memory acquisition and retention.
Brahmi can enhance immune function by increasing immunoglobulin production. It may regulate antibody production by augmenting both Th1 and Th2 cytokineproduction. Bacopa may also increase the effects of calcium channel blocker Antihypertensive drugs and their doses may need to be reduced if using Bacopa as a supplement. It may also cause a lower heart rate, and increase secretions in the stomach, intestines, and urinary tract. The increase in secretions may irritate ulcers and urinary tract obstructions.
Griffonia simplicifolia ou Bandeiraea simplicifolia Benth é um arbusto nativo da África Central e África Ocidental. Cresce aproximadamente 3 m, tem flores esverdeadas e casca preta. As sementes da planta são usadas como suplemento, pois possuem rica quantidade de 5-hidroxitriptofano.
The seeds of the plant are used as a herbal supplement for their 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP ) content. 5-Hydroxytryptophan is an important building block for the human body to formserotonin. Serotonin plays an important role in the body specially as a neurotransmitter to transport signals between neurons in the nervous system. Griffonia simplicifolia also has alegume lectin called GS Isolectin B4, which binds to alpha-D-galactosyl residues of polysaccharides and glycoproteins.
St John’s wort is widely known as an herbal treatment for depression. In some countries, such as Germany, it is commonly prescribed for mild depression, especially in children and adolescents.
Rhodiola rosea may be effective for improving mood and alleviating depression. Pilot studies on human subjects showed it improves physical and mental performance, and may reduce fatigue.
Rhodiola rosea’s effects are potentially mediated by changes in serotonin and dopamine levels due to monoamine oxidase inhibition and its influence on opioid peptides, such as beta-endorphin, although these specific neurochemical mechanisms have not been clearly documented with scientific studies.
Rhodiola is included among a class of plant derivatives called adaptogens which differ from chemical stimulants, such as nicotine, and do not have the same physiological effects.
In Russia and Scandinavia, R. rosea has been used for centuries to cope with the cold Siberian climate and stressful life.Such effects were provided with evidence in laboratory models of stress using the nematode C. elegans, and in rats in which Rhodiolaeffectively prevented stress-induced changes in appetite, physical activity, weight gain and the estrus cycle.